The large and most attractive are three feet tall.  In the Snake River canyon in Idaho, nests are 5 to 8 km (3.1 to 5.0 mi) apart, while two other nearby studies in Idaho found the average distance were 4.3 km (2.7 mi) and 4.39 km (2.73 mi), respectively. Ground nests typically occur on lofty hills which have little ground vegetation and require adults to have a good protective all-around view.  Due to the consistency of use by golden eagle pairs, population densities change generally happens only quite gradually.  The oldest golden eagle hatchling may start acting aggressively to its younger sibling(s) as soon as it or they hatch. If the eyrie is situated on a tree, supporting tree branches may break because of the weight of the nest. Phillips, R. L., A. H. Wheeler, J. M. Lockhart, T. P. McEneaney, and N. C. Forrester. The chick is completely free in 37 hours.  In 9 studies of annual nest spacing, the average minimum distance between nests range from 16 km (9.9 mi) apart in Norway to 8 km (5.0 mi) apart in Switzerland.  Nests in Kazakhstan averaged 148.3 cm (58.4 in) in length, 115.7 cm (45.6 in) in diameter and 48 cm (19 in) in depth.  In each case, the natural predators of these animals are just the right size for golden eagle prey, and therefore avoid active eyries. The incubation period lasts from 41 to 45 days, averaging about 42.4 days, with previously reported claims of as low as 33 days from North America now known to be erroneous. Website designed by The Thomas Group.  The whitish down continues until around 25 days of age, at which point it is gradually replaced by dark contour feathers that eclipse the down and the birds attain a general piebald appearance.  Egg laying starts in the dry season as early as late November around Mali and Niger while the median egg laying date in southwestern Morocco is January 15.  In Switzerland, juvenile birds traveled an accumulated range of 2,000 to 15,000 km2 (770 to 5,790 sq mi) whereas the adults never left their home ranges of 75 to 191 km2 (29 to 74 sq mi).  Some golden eagle pairs may not use a nest for up to six years after its construction. Post Office Box 333 Pigeon Forge, TN 37868, 1-800-2EAGLES Office Phone: (865) 429-0157 Fax Phone: (865) 429-4743. (1989).  6 (40%) of 15 nestling losses in nests in Central Europe were from cainism.  In Scotland, there may be a weak link between food supply and cainism.  This is the habitual behavior in the nest of the oldest hatchling to attack and usually kill their young siblings. In Sweden, pairs on average built 2.4 of them. If it is not directly killed, the younger sibling may starve to death, which may be an even more common occurrence.  From their first winter until their fourth or fifth winter is the least well-known of the golden eagle’s life.  At night, the female generally appears to do all of the incubating.  The earliest median laying date in 25 international studies was December 3 in Oman; the latest median date of egg-laying was May 7 in sub-Arctic Alaska.  In the wooded peatlands of Sweden and Belarus, a maximum of 5 pairs appear to occur per 1,000 km2 (390 sq mi). In fact, this behavior is quite common, not only in large accipitirids but also in unrelated raptorial birds such as skuas and owls. In Scotland, egg-laying occurs in March to mid-April. Aspects in the ecology and biodynamics of the Golden Eagle (, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Kropil, R. and M. Majda.  This theory is borne out by the fact that the tropical species which are obligate cainists invariably have a longer average nesting period than species which nest in temperate zones.  The nesting density for a breeding population near Livermore, California, and the Altamont Pass Wind Farm is among the highest in the world for golden eagles, with at least 44 pairs in 1997, a density of one pair per 19 km (12 mi). , Golden eagles seem to prefer to build their nests on cliffs where they are available.  Some pairs utilize alternate nest sites every year, others apparently rarely use alternate nests.  In Ethiopia, the estimated range of egg-laying dates ranged from October 24 to January 5. , Generally breeding success seems to be greatest where prey is available in abundance.  Upon hatching, the chicks are covered in fluffy white down. The study in North Dakota focused on juveniles from six different nests which successfully produced two fledglings and the behavior of the sibling-pairs was surprisingly gregarious as they flew together, perched together and mutually preened for months after independence.  Fledging occurs at 66 to 75 days of age in Idaho and 70 to 81 days in Scotland.  The median egg laying day in Arctic Russia was May 1.  Despite this, males typically tend to develop sooner and fledge more quickly than the females. A 4 egg clutch is considered exceptional. In Japan, a pair was seen mating 46 days before egg laying and in the United States 55 days after egg-laying. The obligate cainists are two tropical species, the Verreaux's and the tawny eagle, and one temperate-climate-dwelling species, the lesser spotted-eagle. On Skye, where carrion and rabbits are quite abundant, the younger sibling survives to fledge in about 20% of nests, whereas in the West-Central Highlands, where food is more scarce, the second sibling fledged in only about 4% of nests. Here the average number of young ranged from 0.56 in 1967 to 1.06 in 1969 to 0.31 in 1973.  In Armenia, the average egg measured 76.5 by 59.1 mm (3.01 by 2.33 in) and weighed 123 g (4.3 oz).  The first attempt of nesting by six banded golden eagles in southwestern Idaho occurred when they were from four to seven years of age, with five years appearing to be the average internationally.  Nests are generally located at around half of the maximum elevation of the surrounding land.  The voice of nestlings advances from a soft chirp to a disyllabic seeir at around 15 days of age and then to a louder, clearer and conspicuously harsher psaa call given from about 20 days of age to as late as several weeks after fledging. They can be found in different parts of the world.  All known nests in Iraq have been on cliffs. & Reid, R. (2009). After the first chip is broken off of the egg, there is no activity for around 27 hours. The feet go from flesh-colored at hatching to grey to black, thence finally to yellow.  The movements of first-year eagles from Denali National Park averaged more than 5,500 km (3,400 mi), with surviving individuals migrating south to western Canada and the Western U.S. in autumn then moving back north to western Yukon and Alaska in spring. All Rights Reserved.  Young eagles stay within 100 m (330 ft) of the nest in the first few weeks after fledging.  The average amount of food brought to the nest daily was notably higher in Idaho and Montana, where an average of 1,417 g (3.124 lb) and 1,470 g (3.24 lb) of prey were brought to the nest, respectively, than in Texas, where an average of 885 g (1.951 lb) was brought. How many eggs does a … During the peak of summer in Utah, hunting and territorial flights occurred mostly between 9:00 and 11:00 am and 4:00 and 6:00 pm, with the remaining 15 or so h… The female may continue to grab most of their own food in areas where carrion is easily accessible.  Around this age, they also start sitting up more. (1990).  95.6% of 410 nests built in Scotland were on cliffs.  However, many nest where food availability was seemingly much higher than what all nestlings would need for food still experience siblicide. & McEneaney, T.P. Clutches have been recorded range in size from 1 to 4 eggs, though two is the norm around the range.  Females do a majority of, but not all, of the incubating and largely attain their own food up to the stage of egg-laying, after which they are typically fed by the male.  Around 20 days of age, the chicks generally start standing, which becomes the main position over the course of the next 40 days.  Occasionally, pairs have been recorded copulating outside of the context of fertilization, possibly for pair maintenance and displacement activity.  Within a matter of days, the chicks try to defecate over the edge of the nest but are not competent at it until they are around 20 days old.  The nestlings hatch in approximate 3- to 5-day intervals. There are six living subspecies of Golden Eagle that differ slightly in size and plumage.  In the wild, eggs are typically laid at 3 to 5 day intervals, with records in captivity of intervals of up to 7 or 10 days.